Wednesday, 30 March 2016

What really links place names in Brittany, Cornwall and Wales (apart from a few hundred Celtic saints)?


Place Name Elements in Breton, Welsh and Cornish (with examples and English gloss)


BRETON
CORNISH
WELSH
ENGLISH
EXAMPLES
C=Cornwall; W= Wales
aut, alt, aod
alt, als, aulz
allt
hill, slope, cliff
Duault (22), Nansalsa (C), Allt-golau (W)
ael
ael
ael
summit, brow, ridge
Hirael (35), Aelbryn (W)
aval
aval, avallen
afal, afallen
apple
Availles-sur-Seiche (35), Rosevallen (C), Dolafallen (W)
aon, aven
auon, awan
afon
river
Pont-Aven (29); Arrowan (C), Aberavon (W)
arcae
-
argae
dam, embankment
Erquy (22), Argae Alwen (W)
ard, art, arz
are, ard, arth
ardd
hill, elevation
Arzon (56); Trenarth (C), Pennard (W)
arz, arzh
art, arth
arth
bear
Île-d'Arz (56), Carn Arthen (C), Aber-arth (W)
ascorn
-
asgwrn, esgyrn
bone/s
Coatascorn (22), Esgyrn (W)
banadl
banollack
Banadl(og)
broom (patch)
Plobannalec (56), Bonallack (C), Cefn Banadl (W)
bed, bez
beth
bedd
grave
Rospez (22), Trembethow (C), Beddgelert (W)
beduan
bedou, besow
Bedw(en)
birch tree/grove
Bédée (35), Lambessow (C), Bedwlwyn (W)
bihan
By(gh)an, bean
bychan
small, little
Henanbihan (22), Carn Bean (C), Morfa Bychan (W)
bot, bod
Bod, bos
bod
dwelling/home
Botmeur (29), Boslowick (C), Bodrhychwyn (W)
bre
bre(a)
bre
hill(ock)
Brélès (29), Brea (C), Pen-bre (W)
brec’h, brith
brech, bregh, brith
brych
mottled/hilly place
Trébry (22), Trebrith (Cornwall), Brechfa (W)
bran, brain

brane
brân, brain
crow(s)
La Chapelle-de-Brain (35), Brane (C), Cwm-Brân (W)
 broenn
Bronnen, brunnen
brwyn(en)
rushes/marsh shrubs
Broons (22), Brunnion (C), Cwmbrwyn (W)
caer, kaer, kêr
caer, car, kear
caer
fort, enclosure, village
Kerbors, Caervallack (C), Caernarfon (W)
cam, kamm
cam, cabm
cam
curved/crooked
Camlez (22), Cambeak (C), Camros (W)
carn/karn
carn/kern
carn
cairn, tor, crag
Carnac (56), Carn Brea (C), Talygarn (W)
caro, karo
caruu, carow
carw
stag (red deer)
Caro (56), Lancarrow (C), Cilcarw (W)
castell, kastell
castell
castell
castle
Trégastel (22), Castallack (C), Trecastell (W)
coët, c/koad,
cuit, coys, cooz
coed
wood, forest
Plancoët (22), Pencoys (C), Bettws-y-coed
croes, kroaz
crois, crows/z
crwys, croes
cross
Plougras (22), Crows-an-wra (C), Bryncroes (W)
crug, krug
cruc/k, creeg
crug
mound, tumulus, barrow
Cruguel (22), Crugillick (C), Bryncrug (W)
cum/com
coombe, cum,
cwm
valley, dale
Commana (29), Coombe (C), Cwm-barre (W)
din
din, dun, dinas
din
hill fort
Dinan (22), Castle an Dinas (C),  Dinas Mawddwy (W)
dol
dol
dol
River meadow
Dol-de-Bretagne (35), Godolphin (C), Dol-y-bont (W)
dour
douer
dwfr, dwr
water, river
Pouldouran (22), Dowran (C), Cwmdwr
drein, draenen
drein
draen, drein
thorn (bushes)
Rostrenen (22), Draynes (C), Bryndreiniog (W)
drez

dreis/z
drys
brambles
Trédrez (22), Poltrease (C), Dryslwyn (W)
du
duw, du(e)
du
dark, black
Duault (22), Toldhu (C), Ynys-ddu (W)
enez
ennis, enys
ynys
island, remote place
Douarnenez (29),   Ynys Môn (W), Bosporthennis (C),
Ethin(oc)
eithin
Eithin(og)
gorse
Plouhinec (29, 56), Rosenithon (C), Bryn Eithinog (W)
faou
faw
ffaw
beech
Le Faouët (22, 56), Fowey (C), Ffawyddog (W)
garu
garow
garw
rough, hard, rugged
Garlan (29), Garrow Tor (C), Blaengarw (W)
glas
glaze
glas
grey, green, blue
Kerglas (29), Glasney (C), Bryn Glas (W)
geun, goen
goen, goon
gwaun
downs, moorland
Tréguennec (29), Goonlaze (C), Abergwaun (W)
goulou, golou
golow, gulow
golau
bright, light
Bringolo (22), Tregullow (C), Allt-golay (W)
guar
gwar
gwar
upper
Le Gouray (22), Porthgwarra, Gwarallt (W)
guen, gwenn
guen, gwyn
gwyn
white, fair, sacred
Guenroc (22), Gwendreath (C), Bron-gwyn (W)
gwern, guern
gwearn
gwern
(alder tree) swamp
Le Guerno (56), Penwarne (C), Pengwern (W)
heli, hili
heyl, hayl
heli
brine, salting(s)
Hillion (22), Hayle (C), Pwllheli (W)
hen
hen
hen
old
Henvic (29), Hendra (C), Henllan (W)
hanveg, havreg
havar, havosow
hafod
fallow, summer pasture/residence
Hanvec (29), Halvosso (C), Hafoty (W)
hir
hir, heer, hyr
hir
long, tall
Hirael (35), Hyrlas (C), Pont-hir (W)
ilis/z
eglos
eglwys
church
Bodilis (29), Lanteglos (C), Trefeglwys (W)
iurgch
iorgh, yorth, yorch
iwrch
roebuck
Le Yuch (29), Carnyorth (C), Pwlliwrch (W)
killi
kelli, kelly, killy
celli
grove
Penguily (22), Kelly (C), Pencelli (W)
lann
lan
llan
church site, monastery
Lancieux (22), Landewednack (C), Llanelli (W)
lec’h
legh, leh
llech
slab, stone ledge
Ploulec’h (22), Treleigh (C), Harlech (W)
lis, lez
les, lys, lis
llys
court, hall
Lezardrieux (22), Lesnewth (C), Llysfaen (W)
l(a)ouen, levenez
louen, lowen
lleuen, llawen
happy
Poullaouen (29), Trelawne (C), Bodlawen (W)
loc
loc, lok
lloc
chapel, cell, holy place, enclosure
Locronan (29), Luxulyan (C),  Lloc (W),
loc’h, louc’h, loc
loch, logh, loe
llwch
lake, inlet, pool
Loudéac (22), Looe (C), Amllwch
lost
lost
llost
tail, end
Loscouët-sur-Meu (22), Lostwithiel (C)
maen, main
main, men
maen
stone
Tramain (22), Tramaine (C), Llechfaen (W)
manac’h, menec’h
manach
mynach, menych
monk(s)
Gommenec’h (22), Manaccan (C),  Ystradmynach (W)
marc’h
march, marth
march, meirch
horse
Penmarch (29), Penmarth (C), Rhos-meirch (W)
meillon, melchon
mellyon, mellian
meillion
clover
Mellionec (22), Rosemullion Head (C), : Cwm Meillionen (W)
meur
maur, mere
mawr
big, great
Botmeur (22), Porthmeor (C), Llanbadarn Fawr (W)
menez (méné)
menit, meneth, mena
mynydd
hill, mountain
Plounéour-Ménez (29), Menacuddle (C), Mynydd Isa (W)
moel, mel, moal
moyl, mol, moel
moel
bare hill
Kergrist-Moëlou (22), Molinnis (C), Nant-y-moel (W)
mor
mor
mor
sea
Côtes d’Armor (22), Morvah (C), Brynmôr (W)
moc’h
mogh
moch
pig
Mohon (56), Tremough (C), Crug-moch (W),
nant/ant
nant/nans
nant
valley
Fouesnant (29), Trenant (C),
nowid, nevez
newyth, noweth
newydd
new
Plounévez-Moëdec (22), Trenoweth (C), Casnewydd (W)
onn
onnen, en
onnen, onn
ash (tree)
Henon (22), River Inny (C), Trefonnen (W)
pen(n)
pen
pen
head, top, end
Pencran (29), Penzance (C), Penrhyncoch (W)
perth
perth
perth
bush, hedge, thicket
Le Pertre (35), Penberth (C), Berth-ddu (W)
ple, pleu, plou, plu
plu
plwyf
parish
Ploumeur (29), Pelynt/Plunent (C), Blaen-plwyf (W)
pont
pons/pont
pont
bridge
Hennebont (56), Ponshallow (C), Pen-y-bont (W)
porth, porzh, pors
porth, por
porth
cove, harbour, gateway
Porspoder (29), Porthgwarra (C), Portcawl (W)
poul(l), pol
pol
pwll
pool, creek, cove
Pouldouran (29), Polkanuggo (C), Pwyllgwrach (W)
reden, raden
redan, reden
rhedyn
bracken, fern
Radenac (56), Splattenridden (C), Rhedyn-coch (W)
ret, red, re
rit, res
rhyd
ford
Perret (22), Redruth (C), Penrhyd (W)
ros, roz
ros, rose
rhos
promontory, coastal slope
Roscoff (29), Penrose (C), Rhosllanerchrugog (W)
saozneg, saoson
sawsen
saesneg, saeson
Saxon, English(man)
Sauzon (56), Carsawsen (C), Nant-y-saeson
skaw(ieg)
scaw(en)
ysgeifiog
(place with) elder trees
Squiffiec (22), Boscawen (C), Tresco (Scilly Is.), Ysgeifiog (W)
ti/ty        
ti/chy
house, cottage
Le Croisty (56), Chysauster (C), Ty-groes (W)
tre, trev, tref
tre(a), tref
tre, tref, trev
farm, settlement, village
Trégueux (22), Tregony (C), Treforest (W)
treizh, traez, trez
treath
traeth
beach, sand
Plounéour-Trez (29), Portreath (C), Trefdraeth (W)
uchel, uhel, huel
(h)uhel, ughell
uchel
high
Huelgoat (29), Trewhella (C), Bonuchel (W)

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